Java Programming Language is an object-oriented programing language that was develop by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. In contrast to conventional languages that are typically designed to be converted to native (machine) code or to be translated by running source code, Java is intend to be compile to bytecode, and then executed (generally by JIT compilation) using the Java Virtual Machine.
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History of Java Programing language
Java create as a program known as “Oak” by James Gosling in the month of June. Gosling’s objectives were to develop the virtual machine as well as a language that used the familiar C-like syntax but that was more consistent and a simpler syntax as C/C++. The first version that was release of Java was 1.0 which was release in the year 1995. It offer the promise of “Write Once, Run Anywhere” which include free runtimes that use on well-known platforms. It was quite safe and its security was customizable that allow access to the network and files to be restrict. The main web browsers quickly incorporated it into their default configurations.
It was an safe “applet” configuration. popular quickly. There are new versions available for both small and large platform (J2EE as well as J2ME) shortly were develope in conjunction with “Java 2”. Sun hasn’t disclosed any plans for “Java 3”.
The year 1997 was when Sun tried to contact with the ISO/IEC JTC1 standardization body, and later an international standards body called Ecma International to formalize Java However, the company soon retreated away from this process. Java remains a private standard in practice, and is manage through the Java Community Process.
Sun offers the majority of their Java implementations free of charge, but revenue generate through specialized software like that of the Java Enterprise System. Sun differentiates the two versions of the Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime Environment (JRE) which is an element of the SDK with the main difference is that in the JRE the compiler isn’t include.
Philosophy of Java Programing language
Five primary goals were identify when it came to the development of Java language:
1. It should be based on the object-oriented programming method.
2. It should permit an identical program run across multiple operating systems.
3. It should have built-in support for computers networks.
4. It must make to execute code remotely from secure sources.
5. It should be simple to learn by choosing what were consider to be the most beneficial elements of other language that are object-orient.
To attain the goals of support for networking and remote code execution Java programmers may require extensions like CORBA, Internet Communications Engine OSGi, or CORBA.
Orientation of the object
The primary characteristic”object orientation (“OO”) is related to a technique of language design and programming. While there are many ways to interpret OO the most important principle is to create software so that the various kinds of data it handles are merge with the appropriate actions. So, code and data are combine into entities known as objects.
A object can be describe as a self-contain unit of actions (code) and data (data). The idea is to distinguish the things that change from things that remain the same. Typically changes to a data structure needs a modification to the code that runs on the data, or the reverse is true. Separating cohesive objects can provide the foundation that is more secure for the design of a software system. The idea is to make large-scale software projects more manageable. And improve the quality of the software by reduce the amount of projects that fail.
The other characteristic of platform independence is that Java programs written in Java language have to run in the same way across different hardware. It is possible to write a single program and then run it on any device.
This is achieve by most Java compilers by compiling the Java language code “halfway” to bytecode (specifically Java bytecode)–simplify machine instructions specific to the Java platform. The code then runs in a virtual machine (VM) that is which is a program that is written in native code on host hardware, which interprets and executes Java bytes. Additionally, standard libraries are available to provide access to the features of host hardware (such as networks, threading, and graphics) in unison ways. Be aware that, even though there’s an explicit compiler phase, eventually the Java bytecode is either interprete or converted into local machine instruction by JIT. JIT compiler.
Automatic garbage collection
One concept behind Java’s automatic memory management system is that programmer need not bear the burden of performing manual management of memory. In certain languages, the programmer allocates memory to create an object that is store in the heap, and is accountable to later deal with the memory to erase any objects. If a programmer isn’t able to allocate memory, or creates code that does not perform this task in a timely manner the possibility of a memory leak could happen: the program can consume an arbitrary volume of memory. Furthermore that if a particular region of memory is allocate repeatedly, the program could get unstable and even end up crashing. Additionally, in a non garbage environment, there is some extra work and complexity for the user to monitor and complete allocations.